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    Now foods iron

    now foods iron

    NOW Foods Iron. A NOW Foods Product. Gentle, Non-Constipating, Vegetarian Iron Supplementation! 37 Reviews. Share. Earn Rewards On Everything. Shop for Now Foods Iron Complex Tablets ( pcs) Vitamins & Supplements. Starting from £ Price comparison Find the best price for Now Foods Iron. 4 reviews. Rated / Read customer reviews about Iron by NOW Foods. Join the largest plant-based community, share reviews & donate. BRICK STAR Please note that a minute to your email addresses. One of the with any applicable external website to. Pinnacle version 9 enabled to log. Then wait until your device has and loved it.

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    Iron is also necessary for physical growth, neurological development, cellular functioning, and synthesis of some hormones [ 2 , 3 ]. Dietary iron has two main forms: heme and nonheme [ 1 ]. Plants and iron-fortified foods contain nonheme iron only, whereas meat, seafood, and poultry contain both heme and nonheme iron [ 2 ]. Most of the 3 to 4 grams of elemental iron in adults is in hemoglobin [ 2 ]. Much of the remaining iron is stored in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin a degradation product of ferritin in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow or is located in myoglobin in muscle tissue [ 1 , 5 ].

    Transferrin is the main protein in blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body. Humans typically lose only small amounts of iron in urine, feces, the gastrointestinal tract, and skin. Losses are greater in menstruating women because of blood loss. Hepcidin, a circulating peptide hormone, is the key regulator of both iron absorption and the distribution of iron throughout the body, including in plasma [ 1 , 2 , 6 ]. The assessment of iron status depends almost entirely on hematological indicators [ 7 ].

    However, these indicators are not sensitive or specific enough to adequately describe the full spectrum of iron status, and this can complicate the diagnosis of iron deficiency. A complementary approach is to consider how iron intakes from the diet and dietary supplements compare with recommended intakes.

    Iron deficiency progresses from depletion of iron stores mild iron deficiency , to iron-deficiency erythropoiesis erythrocyte production , and finally to iron deficiency anemia IDA [ 8 , 9 ]. With iron-deficiency erythropoiesis also known as marginal iron deficiency , iron stores are depleted and transferrin saturation declines, but hemoglobin levels are usually within the normal range. IDA is characterized by low hemoglobin concentrations, and decreases in hematocrit the proportion of red blood cells in blood by volume and mean corpuscular volume a measure of erythrocyte size [ 2 , 10 ].

    Serum ferritin concentration, a measure of the body's iron stores, is currently the most efficient and cost-effective test for diagnosing iron deficiency [ ]. Because serum ferritin decreases during the first stage of iron depletion, it can identify low iron status before the onset of IDA [ 7 , 9 , 14 ].

    However, serum ferritin is subject to influence by inflammation due, for example, to infectious disease , which elevates serum ferritin concentrations [ 16 ]. Hemoglobin and hematocrit tests are the most commonly used measures to screen patients for iron deficiency, even though they are neither sensitive nor specific [ 5 , 7 , 17 ]. Often, hemoglobin concentrations are combined with serum ferritin measurements to identify IDA [ 7 ].

    DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and gender, include:. Table 1 lists the current iron RDAs for nonvegetarians. The RDAs for vegetarians are 1. This is because heme iron from meat is more bioavailable than nonheme iron from plant-based foods, and meat, poultry, and seafood increase the absorption of nonheme iron [ 5 ].

    For infants from birth to 6 months, the FNB established an AI for iron that is equivalent to the mean intake of iron in healthy, breastfed infants. The richest sources of heme iron in the diet include lean meat and seafood [ 19 ]. Dietary sources of nonheme iron include nuts, beans, vegetables, and fortified grain products.

    In the United States, about half of dietary iron comes from bread, cereal, and other grain products [ 2 , 3 , 5 ]. Breast milk contains highly bioavailable iron but in amounts that are not sufficient to meet the needs of infants older than 4 to 6 months [ 2 , 20 ]. In the United States, Canada, and many other countries, wheat and other flours are fortified with iron [ 21 , 22 ]. Infant formulas are fortified with 12 mg iron per liter [ 20 ]. Heme iron has higher bioavailability than nonheme iron, and other dietary components have less effect on the bioavailability of heme than nonheme iron [ 3 , 4 ].

    In addition to ascorbic acid, meat, poultry, and seafood can enhance nonheme iron absorption, whereas phytate present in grains and beans and certain polyphenols in some non-animal foods such as cereals and legumes have the opposite effect [ 4 ]. Unlike other inhibitors of iron absorption, calcium might reduce the bioavailability of both nonheme and heme iron. Several food sources of iron are listed in Table 2. Some plant-based foods that are good sources of iron, such as spinach, have low iron bioavailability because they contain iron-absorption inhibitors, such as polyphenols [ 23 , 24 ].

    The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. The DV for iron is 18 mg for adults and children age 4 years and older [ 26 ]. FDA requires food labels to list iron content. Iron is available in many dietary supplements.

    Frequently used forms of iron in supplements include ferrous and ferric iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate, ferrous gluconate, ferric citrate, and ferric sulfate [ 3 , 27 ]. Because of its higher solubility, ferrous iron in dietary supplements is more bioavailable than ferric iron [ 3 ]. Other forms of supplemental iron, such as heme iron polypeptides, carbonyl iron, iron amino-acid chelates, and polysaccharide-iron complexes, might have fewer gastrointestinal side effects than ferrous or ferric salts [ 27 ].

    The different forms of iron in supplements contain varying amounts of elemental iron. Fortunately, elemental iron is listed in the Supplement Facts panel, so consumers do not need to calculate the amount of iron supplied by various forms of iron supplements.

    Calcium might interfere with the absorption of iron, although this effect has not been definitively established [ 4 , 31 ]. For this reason, some experts suggest that people take individual calcium and iron supplements at different times of the day [ 32 ]. People in the United States usually obtain adequate amounts of iron from their diets, but infants, young children, teenaged girls, pregnant women, and premenopausal women are at risk of obtaining insufficient amounts [ 28 , ].

    The average daily iron intake from foods is The average daily iron intake from foods and supplements is The median dietary iron intake in pregnant women is Rates of iron deficiency vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. Deficiency including IDA is more common among children and adolescents in food-insecure households than in food-secure households [ 36 , 37 ].

    Among pregnant women, deficiency based on depleted iron stores is more common in Mexican American Some groups are at risk of obtaining excess iron. Individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis, which predisposes them to absorb excessive amounts of dietary iron, have an increased risk of iron overload [ 39 ]. One study suggests that elderly people are more likely to have chronic positive iron balance and elevated total body iron than iron deficiency.

    The authors did not assess genotypes, so they could not determine whether these results were due to hemochromatosis [ 40 ]. Iron deficiency is not uncommon in the United States, especially among young children, women of reproductive age, and pregnant women.

    Because iron deficiency is associated with poor diet, malabsorptive disorders, and blood loss, people with iron deficiency usually have other nutrient deficiencies [ 2 ]. In developing countries, iron deficiency often results from enteropathies and blood loss associated with gastrointestinal parasites [ 2 ]. Iron depletion and deficiency progresses through several stages [ ]:.

    Although iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia, deficiencies of other micronutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 and other factors such as chronic infection and inflammation can cause different forms of anemia or contribute to their severity. The functional deficits associated with IDA include gastrointestinal disturbances; weakness; fatigue; difficulty concentrating; and impaired cognitive function, immune function, exercise or work performance, and body temperature regulation [ 15 , 43 ].

    In infants and children, IDA can result in psychomotor and cognitive abnormalities that, without treatment, can lead to learning difficulties [ 2 , 43 ]. Some evidence indicates that the effects of deficiencies early in life persist through adulthood [ 2 ]. Because iron deficiency is often accompanied by deficiencies of other nutrients, the signs and symptoms of iron deficiency can be difficult to isolate [ 2 ].

    During pregnancy, plasma volume and red cell mass expand due to dramatic increases in maternal red blood cell production [ 2 ]. As a result of this expansion and to meet the needs of the fetus and placenta, the amount of iron that women need increases during pregnancy. Iron deficiency during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal and infant mortality, premature birth, and low birthweight [ 44 ]. Infants—especially those born preterm or with low birthweight or whose mothers have iron deficiency—are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements due to their rapid growth [ 34 , 45 ].

    Full-term infants usually have sufficient iron stores and need little if any iron from external sources until they are 4 to 6 months old [ 2 ]. However, full-term infants have a risk of becoming iron deficient at 6 to 9 months unless they obtain adequate amounts of solid foods that are rich in bioavailable iron or iron-fortified formula. Women of reproductive age who have menorrhagia, or abnormally heavy bleeding during menstruation, are at increased risk of iron deficiency.

    Women with menorrhagia lose significantly more iron per menstrual cycle on average than women with normal menstrual bleeding [ 49 ]. Frequent blood donors have an increased risk of iron deficiency [ 5 ]. In the United States, adults may donate blood as often as every 8 weeks, which can deplete iron stores. In a study of 2, blood donors, men who had given at least three and women who had given at least two whole-blood donations in the previous year were more than five times as likely to have depleted iron stores as first-time donors [ 53 ].

    A clinical trial of iron supplementation found that of adults who had donated a unit of blood within the past 3—8 days, those randomized to take an iron supplement Without iron supplementation, two-thirds of the donors had not recovered the iron they lost, even after 24 weeks. The main causes of iron deficiency in people with cancer are anemia of chronic disease discussed in the Iron and Health section below and chemotherapy-induced anemia.

    However, chronic blood loss and deficiencies of other nutrients due, for example, to cancer-induced anorexia can exacerbate iron deficiency in this population. The combination of low iron intake and high iron loss can lead to a negative iron balance; reduced production of hemoglobin; or microcytic, hypochromic anemia [ 58 ].

    Potential causes of iron deficiency in people with heart failure include poor nutrition, malabsorption, defective mobilization of iron stores, cardiac cachexia, and use of aspirin and oral anticoagulants, which might result in the loss of some blood in the gastrointestinal tract [ 61 ]. This section focuses on the role of iron in IDA in pregnant women, infants, and toddlers, as well as in anemia of chronic disease.

    Rates of deficiency were 6. Randomized controlled trials have shown that iron supplementation can prevent IDA in pregnant women and related adverse consequences in their infants [ 66 , 67 ]. In the same review, use of daily iron supplements was associated with an 8. In addition, mean birthweight was 31 g higher for infants whose mothers took daily iron supplements during pregnancy compared with the infants of mothers who did not take iron.

    Guidelines on iron supplementation during pregnancy vary, but many recommend some form of iron supplementation to prevent IDA:. The IOM notes that because the median intake of dietary iron by pregnant women is well below the EAR, pregnant women need iron supplementation [ 5 ].

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans advises that women who are pregnant take an iron supplement when recommended by an obstetrician or other health-care provider [ 19 ]. It adds that low intakes of iron are a public health concern for pregnant women. The prevalence of IDA in U.

    Full-term infants typically have adequate iron stores for approximately the first 4 to 6 months, but the risk of iron deficiency in low-birthweight and preterm infants begins at birth because of their low iron stores. IDA in infancy can lead to adverse cognitive and psychological effects, including delayed attention and social withdrawal; some of these effects might be irreversible [ 2 , 20 ].

    In addition, IDA is associated with higher lead concentrations in the blood although the cause of this is not fully understood , which can increase the risk of neurotoxicity [ 20 ]. Another Cochrane review of 8 trials in 3, children younger than 2 in low-income countries showed that home fortification of semi-solid foods with micronutrient powders containing Guidelines vary on dietary iron intakes and possible supplementation to ensure adequate iron status and to prevent or treat IDA in infants and young children:.

    Some studies have suggested that iron supplementation in young children living in areas where malaria is endemic could increase their risk of malaria [ 75 , 76 ]. However, a Cochrane review of 33 trials in 13, children showed that intermittent supplementation does not appear to have this effect [ 77 ]. The WHO therefore recommends 6-month supplementation cycles as follows: children aged 24 to 59 months should receive 25 mg iron and those aged 5 to 12 years should receive 45 mg every week for 3 months, followed by 3 months of no supplementation [ 75 ].

    The WHO recommends providing these supplements in malaria-endemic areas in conjunction with measures to prevent, diagnose, and treat malaria. Certain inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and hematologic malignancies can cause anemia of chronic disease, also known as anemia of inflammation [ 2 , 78 ].

    Anemia of chronic disease is the second most common type of anemia after IDA [ 79 ]. In people with anemia of chronic disease, inflammatory cytokines upregulate the hormone hepcidin. As a result, iron homeostasis is disrupted and iron is diverted from the circulation to storage sites, limiting the amount of iron available for erythropoiesis.

    Anemia of chronic disease is usually mild to moderate hemoglobin levels 8 to 9. The condition can be difficult to diagnose because, although low serum ferritin levels indicate iron deficiency, these levels tend to be higher in patients with infection or inflammation [ 80 ]. The clinical implications of iron deficiency in people with chronic diseases are not clear.

    Even mild anemia of chronic disease is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality in elderly people [ 81 ]. Two prospective observational studies found that iron deficiency in patients with objectively measured heart failure was associated with an increased risk of heart transplantation and death, and this association was independent of other well-established prognostic factors for poor outcomes, including anemia [ 82 , 83 ].

    However, an analysis of NHANES data on adults with self-reported heart failure found no association between iron deficiency and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality [ 60 ]. The main therapy for anemia of chronic disease is treatment of the underlying disease [ 79 ].

    The use of iron supplements—whether oral, intravenous, or parenteral—in this setting is controversial because they might increase the risk of infection and cardiovascular events and could cause tissue damage [ 79 ]. Only a few small studies have evaluated the benefits of oral iron supplementation alone or in combination with ESAs to treat anemia of chronic disease.

    Iron administered parentally increases hemoglobin levels to a greater extent and is associated with fewer side effects than oral iron supplementation in patients with anemia of chronic disease [ 86 ]. Adults with normal intestinal function have very little risk of iron overload from dietary sources of iron [ 2 ].

    However, supplements containing 25 mg iron or more can reduce zinc absorption and plasma zinc concentrations [ 3 , 87 , 88 ]. High-dose iron supplements can also cause gastrointestinal effects, including gastric upset, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea [ 5 , 89 ]. Taking iron supplements with food can help minimize these adverse effects.

    Case reports, some involving doses of mg iron, suggest that some people develop even more serious gastrointestinal effects, including gastritis and gastric lesions along with iron deposits in the gastric mucosa in some cases [ ]. In severe cases e. Between and , at least 43 U. Accidental ingestion of iron supplements caused about a third of poisoning deaths among children reported in the United States between and In , the FDA began requiring oral supplements containing more than 30 mg elemental iron per dose to be sold in single-dose packaging with strong warning labels.

    At the same time, many manufacturers voluntarily replaced the sugar coating on iron tablets with film coatings. Between and , only one child death due to ingesting an iron-containing tablet was reported [ 27 ]. As a result of a court decision, the FDA removed its single-dose packaging requirement for iron supplements in [ 95 ].

    FDA currently requires that iron-containing dietary supplements sold in solid form e. Keep this product out of reach of children. In addition, since , the Consumer Product Safety Commission has required manufacturers to package dietary supplements containing mg or more elemental iron per container in child-resistant bottles or packaging to prevent accidental poisoning [ 97 , 98 ]. Hemochromatosis, a disease caused by a mutation in the hemochromatosis HFE gene, is associated with an excessive buildup of iron in the body [ 3 , 39 , 99 ].

    The condition is much less common in other ethnic groups. Without treatment by periodic chelation or phlebotomy, people with hereditary hemochromatosis typically develop signs of iron toxicity by their 30s [ 3 ]. These effects can include liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, heart disease, and impaired pancreatic function. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends that treatment of hemochromatosis include the avoidance of iron and vitamin C supplements [ 39 ].

    The FNB has established ULs for iron from food and supplements based on the amounts of iron that are associated with gastrointestinal effects following supplemental intakes of iron salts see Table 3. The ULs apply to healthy infants, children, and adults. Physicians sometimes prescribe intakes higher than the UL, such as when people with IDA need higher doses to replenish their iron stores [ 5 ]. Iron can interact with certain medications, and some medications can have an adverse effect on iron levels.

    A few examples are provided below. Individuals taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their iron status with their healthcare providers. In the United States, the labels for levodopa warn that iron-containing dietary supplements might reduce the amount of levodopa available to the body and, thus, diminish its clinical effectiveness [ , ].

    The simultaneous ingestion of iron and levothyroxine can result in clinically significant reductions in levothyroxine efficacy in some patients [ ]. The labels for some of these products [ , ] warn that iron supplements can reduce the absorption of levothyroxine tablets and advise against administering levothyroxine within 4 hours of iron supplements. Gastric acid plays an important role in the absorption of nonheme iron from the diet.

    Treatment with proton pump inhibitors for up to 10 years is not associated with iron depletion or anemia in people with normal iron stores [ ]. But patients with iron deficiency taking proton pump inhibitors can have suboptimal responses to iron supplementation [ ].

    The federal government's — Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Because foods provide an array of nutrients and other components that have benefits for health, nutritional needs should be met primarily through foods. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible otherwise to meet needs for one or more nutrients e. For more information about building a healthy dietary pattern, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.

    Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc. Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice.

    Updated: April 5, History of changes to this fact sheet. Find ODS on:. Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. Health Information Health Information. Iron Fact Sheet for Health Professionals. References Wessling-Resnick M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Aggett PJ. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell; Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. London and New York: Informa Healthcare; Hurrell R, Egli I. Losan Pharma. Lotos Pharma.

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    Two prospective observational studies found that iron deficiency in patients with objectively measured heart failure was associated with an increased risk of heart transplantation and death, and this association was independent of other well-established prognostic factors for poor outcomes, including anemia [ 82 , 83 ]. However, an analysis of NHANES data on adults with self-reported heart failure found no association between iron deficiency and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality [ 60 ].

    The main therapy for anemia of chronic disease is treatment of the underlying disease [ 79 ]. The use of iron supplements—whether oral, intravenous, or parenteral—in this setting is controversial because they might increase the risk of infection and cardiovascular events and could cause tissue damage [ 79 ]. Only a few small studies have evaluated the benefits of oral iron supplementation alone or in combination with ESAs to treat anemia of chronic disease.

    Iron administered parentally increases hemoglobin levels to a greater extent and is associated with fewer side effects than oral iron supplementation in patients with anemia of chronic disease [ 86 ]. Adults with normal intestinal function have very little risk of iron overload from dietary sources of iron [ 2 ]. However, supplements containing 25 mg iron or more can reduce zinc absorption and plasma zinc concentrations [ 3 , 87 , 88 ].

    High-dose iron supplements can also cause gastrointestinal effects, including gastric upset, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea [ 5 , 89 ]. Taking iron supplements with food can help minimize these adverse effects. Case reports, some involving doses of mg iron, suggest that some people develop even more serious gastrointestinal effects, including gastritis and gastric lesions along with iron deposits in the gastric mucosa in some cases [ ].

    In severe cases e. Between and , at least 43 U. Accidental ingestion of iron supplements caused about a third of poisoning deaths among children reported in the United States between and In , the FDA began requiring oral supplements containing more than 30 mg elemental iron per dose to be sold in single-dose packaging with strong warning labels. At the same time, many manufacturers voluntarily replaced the sugar coating on iron tablets with film coatings.

    Between and , only one child death due to ingesting an iron-containing tablet was reported [ 27 ]. As a result of a court decision, the FDA removed its single-dose packaging requirement for iron supplements in [ 95 ].

    FDA currently requires that iron-containing dietary supplements sold in solid form e. Keep this product out of reach of children. In addition, since , the Consumer Product Safety Commission has required manufacturers to package dietary supplements containing mg or more elemental iron per container in child-resistant bottles or packaging to prevent accidental poisoning [ 97 , 98 ].

    Hemochromatosis, a disease caused by a mutation in the hemochromatosis HFE gene, is associated with an excessive buildup of iron in the body [ 3 , 39 , 99 ]. The condition is much less common in other ethnic groups.

    Without treatment by periodic chelation or phlebotomy, people with hereditary hemochromatosis typically develop signs of iron toxicity by their 30s [ 3 ]. These effects can include liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, heart disease, and impaired pancreatic function. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases recommends that treatment of hemochromatosis include the avoidance of iron and vitamin C supplements [ 39 ].

    The FNB has established ULs for iron from food and supplements based on the amounts of iron that are associated with gastrointestinal effects following supplemental intakes of iron salts see Table 3. The ULs apply to healthy infants, children, and adults. Physicians sometimes prescribe intakes higher than the UL, such as when people with IDA need higher doses to replenish their iron stores [ 5 ].

    Iron can interact with certain medications, and some medications can have an adverse effect on iron levels. A few examples are provided below. Individuals taking these and other medications on a regular basis should discuss their iron status with their healthcare providers. In the United States, the labels for levodopa warn that iron-containing dietary supplements might reduce the amount of levodopa available to the body and, thus, diminish its clinical effectiveness [ , ].

    The simultaneous ingestion of iron and levothyroxine can result in clinically significant reductions in levothyroxine efficacy in some patients [ ]. The labels for some of these products [ , ] warn that iron supplements can reduce the absorption of levothyroxine tablets and advise against administering levothyroxine within 4 hours of iron supplements. Gastric acid plays an important role in the absorption of nonheme iron from the diet.

    Treatment with proton pump inhibitors for up to 10 years is not associated with iron depletion or anemia in people with normal iron stores [ ]. But patients with iron deficiency taking proton pump inhibitors can have suboptimal responses to iron supplementation [ ]. The federal government's — Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Because foods provide an array of nutrients and other components that have benefits for health, nutritional needs should be met primarily through foods.

    In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements are useful when it is not possible otherwise to meet needs for one or more nutrients e. For more information about building a healthy dietary pattern, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.

    Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. Updated: April 5, History of changes to this fact sheet. Find ODS on:. Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements. Health Information Health Information. Iron Fact Sheet for Health Professionals.

    References Wessling-Resnick M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Aggett PJ. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell; Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. London and New York: Informa Healthcare; Hurrell R, Egli I. Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. Food and Nutrition Board. Drakesmith H, Prentice AM. Hepcidin and the Iron-Infection Axis.

    Science ; Introduction to workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Am J Clin Nutr. Disorders of iron metabolism: New diagnostic and treatment approaches to iron deficiency. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. J Nutr. Geneva; DeLoughery TG. Microcytic anemia. N Engl J Med. Iron deficiency anemia. Med Clin North Am. Iron deficiency anemia: evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician. Assessment of Iron Status.

    In: Principles of Nutritional Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press; Camaschella C. Iron-deficiency anemia. Assessment of iron status in settings of inflammation: challenges and potential approaches. Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States.

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    J Nutr ;S-7S. Calcium and iron absorption--mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; The effect of calcium on iron absorption. Nutr Res Rev ; Am J Clin Nutr ; Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia in the first two years of life: strategies to prevent loss of developmental potential. Nutr Rev ;69 Suppl 1:S Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States.

    Food insecurity is associated with iron deficiency anemia in US adolescents. Diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis: practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology ; Iron status of the free-living, elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort: an iron-replete population with a high prevalence of elevated iron stores. World Health Organization, World Health Organization. The World Health Report. Geneva: World Health Organization; Clark SF.

    Iron Deficiency Anemia. Nutr Clin Pract ; Iron requirements in infancy. Ann Nutr Metab ; Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; Medical management of heavy menstrual bleeding: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    Obstet Gynecol Surv ; Menorrhagia and bleeding disorders. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; Iron-dependent erythropoiesis in women with excessive menstrual blood losses and women with normal menses. Ann Hematol ; Benefit of concomitant gastrointestinal and gynaecological evaluation in premenopausal women with iron deficiency anaemia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; Age and the prevalence of bleeding disorders in women with menorrhagia. Obstet Gynecol ; Oral iron supplementation after blood donation: a randomized clinical trial.

    JAMA ; Transfusion ; Prevalence and management of cancer-related anaemia, iron deficiency and the specific role of i. Ann Oncol ; Treatment of iron deficiency anemia associated with gastrointestinal tract diseases. World J Gastroenterol ; Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency and anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Inflamm Bowel Dis ; A guide to diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in digestive diseases. Systematic review: managing anaemia in Crohn's disease. Anemia and mortality in heart failure patients a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol ; Iron deficiency in community-dwelling US adults with self-reported heart failure in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III: prevalence and associations with anemia and inflammation.

    Circ Heart Fail ; Eur J Heart Fail ; Iron in pregnancy: How do we secure an appropriate iron status in the mother and child? UK guidelines on the management of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Br J Haematol ; Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Maternal iron status: relation to fetal growth, length of gestation, and iron endowment of the neonate.

    Efficacy and tolerability of low-dose iron supplements during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Iron supplementation during pregnancy, anemia, and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation in pregnant women to improve maternal health and birth outcomes: U. Ann Intern Med.

    Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes. J Am Diet Assoc ;S Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants. Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age review. Publication No. AHRQ Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Lancet ; Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age. Diagnosis and management of anaemia of chronic disease: current status. Brudy technology. California Gold Nutrition. Care Health. Cheong Kwan Jang. Dieta Perfetta. Doctor's Best. Theiss Naturwaren GmbH.

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